Participatory art describes a form of art that includes the audience in the creative process or in the performative event as co-producers. Its origins can be traced to the Futurist and Dadaist performances from 1910 onwards. Later, in the 1950s, Allan Kaprow designed performances as happenings, where the audience was invited to participate in producing the event. Although participatory art has its origins in a fine art context, the art form is inherently linked to theatre and performance, as people constitute the central artistic medium and material. Participatory performance tends to aim at group dynamics, social situations, and providing tools for claiming participation in social and political contexts as well (Bishop 2012).
Ref: Bishop, Claire (2012): Artificial hells: participatory art and the politics of spectatorship. London: Verso.